DARKINS: Darwin-Dawkins Insights

            Many have tried to understand the phenomenon behind evolution. Many have tried to become a great detective and find answers about how evolution is occurring. Darwin has thought that the origin of species is a “mystery of mysteries.” Darwin and Wallace have been investigating these mysteries and somehow they have the same general conclusion. Even though Darwin had imperfect abstract about this topic, he sought for answers and finally introduced us his point. He even emphasized “natural selection.” This also under Malthus’ doctrine – that as many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive and struggle for existence, however, slightly in any manner profitable to itself in varying conditions of life will have a better chance of surviving, thus be naturally selected. Thus, this “natural selection” could almost inevitably cause much extinction to less improved and incapable forms of life leading to divergence of the character, but ever since, this topic was only considered a theory and a very sensitive topic to talk about. He considers himself a naturalist, in a way that he reflects on scientific way of observing and thinking. Dawkins somehow same and approved Darwin’s ideas would reflect on recent issues about evolution. Thus, he would say that the concept of evolution also changes over time. Even though religion and science would normally clash, religion and science must not interfere with each other because it may venture confusion. Evolution is a fact. It is right to know about anything that has a proof but it would depend on you on how you would absorb it. Evolution has now been proven but still lacking more evidences. In platonic idea, an organism of today may be an organism of the past but with different appearance, which in recent they evolved in a perfect way (though may still be imperfect) they could fit and survive in their environment. Darwin believes that natural selection is a an exclusive means of evolution.

         What would be the causes of this variability among species? Variation under domestication would further affect the gene pool. Selective breeding affects not only the appearance but also the DNA content that would flourish into certain species. Variation can also occur through correlation. Varied changes in the embryo or larva will probably had an effect and thus changes the mature animal. Hybridization on the other hand would represent a deliberate violation of the isolation of the gene pools. This hybridization would incur mutations. Mutations are the random changes in genes that constitute the raw material for evolution by non-random selection. It occurs naturally in nature but large mutations seldom survive. A mutation is just a light increment or decrement in the numerical value of the parent’s gene. Dawkins produced a game that would illustrate artificial selection. He emphasized that a single mutation typically has an effect all over the whole organism, rather than just in one part of it. Humans on the other hand, used their senses to selectively breed animals or plants making many varieties of each. But it is of human nature to make choices and plan for the better. Before humans, being a domesticator, insects are the first ones to domesticate not animals but flowers. Like humans, insects also used their senses in picking flowers that would be capable of what would they need. Again these observations would lead to natural selection process. Thus, also I can conclude that variation would occur through natural selection that would therefore produce mutation. Darwin also emphasizes that choice can be made automatically by survival or not surviving. Survival counts, Darwin realized, because only survivors reproduce and pass on the genes that helped them to survive. Without any kind of choosing agent, those individuals that are ‘chosen’ by the fact that they are chosen because they happen to possess superior equipment to survive are the most likely to reproduce, and therefore to pass on the genes for possessing superior equipment. Therefore every gene pool, in every species, tends to become filled with genes for making superior equipment for survival and reproduction. Natural selection on the other hand is related to the “survival of the fittest.” Since, Darwin’s theory must be proven, an experiment must be performed to answer the hypothesis. To test the hypothesis, an experiment must be done. But this selection is naturally occurring in nature thus manipulation systematically must be done in order to perform natural selection as naturally as possible.

         Finally, we can say that varieties cannot be distinguished from species. Except that we could distinguish varieties by the discovery of intermediate linking forms; and by a certain indefinite amount of difference between them. The amount of difference considered necessary to give to any two forms the rank of species cannot be defined. In genera having more than the average number of species in any country, the species of these genera have more than the average number of varieties. In large genera the species are apt to be closely but unequally allied together, forming little clusters round other species. Species very closely allied to other species apparently have restricted ranges. In all these respects the species of large genera present a strong analogy with varieties. And we can clearly understand these analogies, if species once existed as varieties, and thus originated; whereas, these analogies are inexplicable if species are independent creations. We have also seen that it is the most flourishing or dominant species of the larger genera within each class which on an average yield the greatest number of varieties, and varieties, as we shall hereafter see, tend to become converted into new and distinct species. Thus the larger genera tend to become larger; and throughout nature the forms of life which are now dominant tend to become still more dominant by leaving many modified and dominant descendants. But, by steps hereafter to be explained, the larger genera also tend to break up into smaller genera. And thus, the forms of life throughout the universe become divided into groups subordinate to groups.

 

         Co-evolution on the other hand, also occurs between species that don’t benefit from each other’s presence, like predators and prey, or parasites and hosts. These kinds of co-evolution are sometimes called ‘arms races.’ I can say that based on Darwin’s explanations if variation under nature, this is also the “co-evolution.” Nature would be as a selecting agent. If a variety were to flourish so as to exceed in numbers the parent species, it would then rank as the species, and the species as the variety; or it might come to supplant and exterminate the parent species; or both might co-exist, and both rank as independent species. It is a complex relationship to each other in the struggle of existence. This would only indicate that if one is affected, its co-evolved species would also be affected.

         In order to distinguish time these evidences that occurred many years before, there were processes or techniques scientists use. These are through the following: tree rings, radioactive dating, and position of rocks the fossils are obtained.

 

    Natural selection would eventually modify an organism aiding it to be advantageous to its environment and would definitely opt to evolution. Natural selection could also be of sexual selection. This process is also naturally occurring in nature. This form of selection depends, not on a struggle for existence in relation to others or to external conditions, but on a struggle between the individuals of one sex, generally the males, for the possession of the other sex. The result is not death to the unsuccessful competitor, but few or no offspring. Those which are best fitted for their places in nature will leave most progeny. In nature, those who survive and have most progeny will survive. An example of this was emphasized on Dawkins, where there is an experiment on a bacteria, to which is easier to duplicate by just a day. He emphasized that a sufficiently high dose will kill all the bacteria while sufficiently low dose will kill none. An intermediate dose will kill some, but not all, there were still that will survive. If there is genetic variation among bacteria, such that some are more susceptible to the antibiotic than others, an intermediate dose will be tailor-made to select in favor of genes for resistance.

 

        These are all happening slowly with the aid of nature. On the other hand, natural selection could also result to extinction of population of species. Having nearly the same structure, constitution and habits, generally come into the severe competition with each other. Consequently, each new variety or species, during the progress of its formation, will generally press hardest on its nearest kind, and tend to exterminate them. They have emphasized that the same process of extermination among our domesticated productions, through the selection of improved forms by man. Thus this would also result to divergence of characters. But there was this Darwin’s idea of convergence of character. Darwin emphasized that if two species belonging to two distinct though allied genera, had both produced a large number of new and divergent forms, it is conceivable that these might approach each other so closely that they would have all to be classed under the same genus; and thus the descendants of two distinct genera would converge into one. But it would in most cases be extremely rash to attribute to convergence a close and general similarity of structure in the modified descendants of widely distinct forms.

         Thus this would be if under changing conditions of life organism’s present individual differences in almost every part of their structure, and this cannot be disputed; if there be, owing to their geometrical rate of increase, a severe struggle for life at some age, season or year, and this certainly cannot be disputed; then, considering the infinite complexity of the relations of all organic beings to each other and to their conditions of life, causing an infinite diversity in structure, constitution, and habits, to be advantageous to them, it would be a most extraordinary fact if no variations had ever occurred useful to each being’s own welfare, in the same manner as so many variations have occurred useful to man. But if variations useful to any organic being ever do occur, assuredly individuals thus characterized will have the best chance of being preserved in the struggle for life; and from the strong principle of inheritance, these will tend to produce offspring similarly characterized. This principle of preservation or the survival of the fittest which leads to the improvement of each creature in relation to conditions and organization of life, and those low and simple forms will long endure if well fitted for their simple conditions of life.

      Again, even since there were evidences to prove evolution, there were still missing evidences that would further prove it. Fossil record is limited that some people tend to ask more. Gap in the fossil record was termed as a missing link between discovered and recent species. Evolution not only is a gradual process but it has to be gradual if it is to do any explanatory work. Molecular evidences have proven more of evolution. Little by little this gap is being filled also little by little.

Advertisements

BUGHAW

BLUEHEART
Bughaw?
Minsan kulay, minsan ikaw
Pares na paborito, di mawaglit sa balintataw
Bughaw? Ano bang bughaw?
Minsan sa kalangita’y umaapaw
Tumutulo, umaagos sa aking matang mapanglaw

Bughaw?
Sa pagbabaliktanaw,
Nang ito pa ang kulay ng araw
Lagablab ng ‘yong apoy’ nakatutunaw
Bagaman nakapapawi ng uhaw

Bughaw? Ano bang bughaw?
Suot mo nang ika’y pumanaw
Sa kalagitnaan ng init, maaraw
Iniwa’t pinadama ako’y isa lamang langaw

Puso ko’y pawang nabalaraw
Utak ko’y nasabaw
Nang malaman sa mga u-taw,
Pinagpalit sa dugong-bughaw

Ikaw pala’y isang malaking butaw
Dinaig mo pa isang halimaw
Binalewala kayod kalabaw
Tingin saki’y mababaw
Hapdi’t sakit patuloy na sumasaklaw

Puso ko ngayo’y bughaw
Bugbog, sabog ng pahapyaw
Tibok nito’y nanaghoy, sumisigaw
Malamig pa sa hanging sumisingaw
Mga tanong sa isip humihiyaw, sumasayaw

Sa ilalim ng maraming ilaw
Kung san nalulong sa kakaw
Ako’y naligaw
Isang iglap ako’y napukaw
Lahat naging malinaw

Na ayoko na sa ikaw
Makasarili’t matakaw
Ikaw sa aki’y di inagaw
Ikaw mismong bumitaw

At noon pa man sa aking pananaw
Kailanman tayo’y di magsasapaw
Pagkat ako’y pula at ika’y bughaw

I Love IT 1!

So we had a take home exercise where in we must add numbers using binary arithmetic by 8-bits.

As I progress throughout the exercise, I observed that my answers are forming patterns. I continue to answer and when I finished answering all of the items, lo and behold, I had this formed!IT 1 does not cease to amaze me. I can proudly say that “I LOVE IT 1!” ❤ ❤ ❤

(That’s just it for today because our class ended halfway because of brownout but we have learned some of BOOLEAN ALGEBRA and Logic gates. We will continue our discussion next week.)

Awareness of UPLB students on “fake news” survey result highlights.

Today we reported the results of our month-long survey among undergraduate UPLB students. We had hundred of respondents towards the end. In this group project, we are obliged only to use Google features like Google drawing, Google slides, and Google docs. We are glad we came up with this infographics based on their answers and the results of the survey.

INFOGRAPHICS

Infographics on “Fake news” awareness of UPLB students

Based on the results, about 56 percent of the respondents are victims of fake news. The number one source of fake news the students encountered is from the social media which is very likely because almost 75 percent of the respondents have read or know about news from social media and computer than news from radio, newspapers or television.

topics

Usual topics of fake news

The usual topics of fake news they usually encounter are about politics, death of a public figure, scientific findings, showbiz, false accusations, health, weather forecast, tips holiday, sports, scandal, tragedies and natural phenomenon. As we can see, they tend to encounter fake news that are about politics than the other topics.

categories

Categories of “Fake news”

Various categories of fake news was also encountered by our respondents but mostly are slanted and biased fake news. Second to the poll is the misleading kind of fake news. While the least encountered kind of fake news are imprecise & sloppy and satire & parody.

We also asked them in our survey if they happened to have read, listened, or watched a news, that would they be able to evaluate if the information given was legitimate or not. The result is quite fascinating because about 66 out of 100 can be able to evaluate if the news they have acquired is legitimate or not.

VICTIMS

When asked if they always check the source of their information 64% said always, while 29% said sometimes and the remaining said that they seldom and never do it. Almost half of the respondents said that they also check the date and time of the news that they have read to see to it if the information is timely or not. Forty-one percent (41%) said that they sometimes check the date and time while others (8%) said that they seldom do it. [B]

SENATE

When asked about their awareness about Senate Bill No. 1492, “an act penalizing the malicious distribution of false news and other related violations”, majority (57%) said that they were aware while 43% said that they are not aware about this senate bill. Those who knew about this senate bill answered that they would support (79%) this bill while others said maybe (19%) and no (2%), while those who said that they were not aware of this bill that they would want to learn (95.4%) about it. [B]

WATDODO

The”What to dos” if encountered fake news based on their answers.

So everyone, not only UPLB students, I hope with this survey we can help prevent spreading of fake news. I have only presented here highlights of our survey results. DO NOT BE DECEIVED. DO NOT DECEIVE.

Please help! Please!

I made memes out of my sis and bro’s pageant pictures and videos. This is my way of supporting them. I hope you support them too. Thank you!

Hello! We’re kindly asking you to help us out by clicking the link and voting for our Mr and Ms Phileos. Thank you! ❤

Ms Phileos

http://pageantvote.com.ph/pageants/352/contestants/3269

Mr Phileos: 

http://pageantvote.com.ph/pageants/352/contestants/3256

These are some of the samples:

Pinoy memes:

Hacker feels in decoding number ructions.

I remember when I was in elementary, my brother and I used to have secrets decoded by each other. We use special formulas or special patterns on how our we going to solve each other’s secret codes. We sometimes use numbers to represent alphabet or vice versa.

Today I have learned about number systems other than decimal. These are the binary, octal and hexadecimal nmber systems. We are also taught how to convert them. I was puzzled at first but in the end I got it and eventually answered our exercises. It literally challenges my logic. It is time consuming and brain racking but it feels good when you get the correct answers.

IMG_20170907_153816

My paper was a mess, it almost looked like scratch

I shall teach my brothers these new knowledge I have incurred. We can use it on our decoding games and many more. [Bwahahahaha!] Brofist!

 

BH: A little bit of a hero

Screen Shot 2017-09-04 at 3.25.38 PM

Well here, I am referring to the game BIT HEROES, an 8 bit graphic game I am playing recently.

 

BIT Heroes is an 8-bit graphic role playing game you can play in mobile or pc made by Juppiomenz.

[Woah! I am applying what have I learned in IT1 about bits and bytes. Yey!] 

It saves me from boredom and keeps me sane [haha]. I am a bit of addicted to it because it tends my competitiveness. My bestfriend introduced me to it and we compete with each other by any means in the game like in levels, legendary weapons we get, and even the familiars we persuade or combine. I am sharing it so that you’ll know how I enjoy playing it and also show my recent adventures with my character.

Screenshot_20170904-160211

Here’s my character—am so cute!

I think I am playing it for almost one and a half month already. To those who wants to add me, my IGN (in game name) is elleroyale. I have now become level 100 that I have thought making a blog about it.

Screenshot_20170901-230309

Raid with my friends and guildmates.

You can be able to communicate with other players around the globe and meet new friends. You can also form guilds, explore dungeons, fight epic bosses, compete in events, battle in arena, and many more. There you can also fight different kinds of monsters and can persuade them to join your team, put them in a stable or fuse them.

Screenshot_20170901-232256

Kawaii icon of BH

There are so much to talk about this game but I will not spoil a lot of fun things about it, its up to you if you want to explore more about it and play it. It can be downloaded in Play Store and App Store or you can play it in KONGREGATE. Just comment here and let me know what you think about this game. You can check out more about it here through this link